Understanding Some Common Eye Problems: From Disorders to Diseases



Our eyes are a remarkable gift that allows us to experience the world around us. However, they are also vulnerable to various disorders and diseases that can impair our vision and, in severe cases, lead to blindness. Understanding the common eye disorders and taking proactive measures to protect our eyesight is essential for maintaining a high quality of life. In this article, we will delve into some of the most prevalent eye disorders, eye diseases, and vision problems, emphasizing the significance of early detection and appropriate care.

What are eye common eye problems?

Common eye problems are prevalent among both adults and children and can affect individuals differently. They range from temporary issues like conjunctivitis or pink eye, styes, and dry eyes, to more long-lasting conditions like cataracts, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy.

Additionally, refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia can cause blurred vision. Strabismus or crossed eyes and amblyopia or lazy eye are common in children.

Most eye problems are treatable if detected early, so regular eye check-ups are crucial.

(1) Cataracts:

Cataracts occur when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy or opaque. This can cause blurriness, poor night vision, and sensitivity to light. Surgery is sometimes used to treat cataracts to restore clear vision. Cataracts commonly occur in people aged 40 and above, and are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. They form slowly and usually without pain, although they can sometimes appear rapidly. The lens of the eye works much like a camera. It focuses light to enable clear vision. With a healthy lens, the light passes right through to the retina at the back of the eye, where an image is perceived. When cataracts form, they block some of the light passing through the lens, causing vision problems. If cataracts continue to progress and interfere with everyday activities, doctors suggest a surgical procedure to remove the affected lens and replace it with an artificial lens. Cataract surgery is a safe and effective treatment. Early detection through regular eye examinations can help manage cataracts effectively before they significantly affect vision.

Types of cataracts:

(i) Nuclear cataracts

(ii) Cortical cataracts, and

(iii) Posterior subcapsular cataracts.

(2) Glaucoma:

This pressure builds up as a result of a blockage in the eye’s drainage system, which is meant to manage the fluid that naturally fills the interior of the eye. When this system is blocked or does not work properly, fluid accumulates and pressure within the eye increases. This condition can affect people of all ages but it is more prevalent in older adults, and in those with a family history of the disease. Other risk factors include being of African, Hispanic, or Asian heritage, having certain medical conditions (like diabetes), having had an eye injury or certain types of eye surgery, taking corticosteroid medications (especially eye drops) for a long period of time etc. Regular eye checkups including measurement of eye pressure is crucial for individuals at risk of glaucoma. Types of glaucoma include:

(i) Primary open-angle glaucoma

(ii) Angle-closure glaucoma, and

(iii) Normal tension glaucoma.

(3) Macular Degeneration:

The macula is a small part in the center of the retina, a thin layer of tissue located at the back of the eye. This area is responsible for clear, detailed vision used in activities such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces or colors. It is recommended to have regular eye exams as it is the best way to catch macular degeneration in its early stages before more significant vision loss occurs.

Types of macular degeneration include:

(i) Dry Macular Degeneration

(ii) Wet Macular Degeneration

(4) Astigmatism:

Astigmatism occurs when the cornea, the clear front surface of the eye, is not perfectly round but instead is shaped more like a football. The cornea is responsible for refracting or bending the light that enters the eye, and in order to see clearly, the light should be evenly distributed across the retina at the back of the eye. In individuals with astigmatism, the irregular shape of the cornea can cause light to be focused in multiple points on the retina, which compromises clear vision. 

Astigmatism symptoms may include blurry or distorted vision at all distances, eyestrain, squinting to see clearly, headaches, difficulty driving especially at night, and feeling fatigued after performing tasks requiring a clear vision such as reading or using a computer. Prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses can usually correct the light refraction issues caused by astigmatism. Refractive surgeries such as LASIK or PRK are popular surgical remedies to reshape the cornea and correct the vision. Consult with an eye professional to know the best treatment option for individual conditions.

(5) Corneal Abrasion:

It's important to see a doctor if you suspect you have a corneal abrasion, as left untreated, it can become infected or develop into a corneal ulcer, which can lead to loss of vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointment to prevent infection, along with pain relievers and a patch to reduce light sensitivity. Reducing your risk of corneal abrasions can be done by using protective eyewear when performing activities that may pose a risk to your eyes - such as construction, sports, or even gardening. It's also important to use good hygiene when inserting, removing, and cleaning contact lenses.

In most cases, corneal abrasions will heal within a couple of days with proper treatment, though more serious cases may require additional care and time to fully heal. It is advised to seek professional help promptly if you experience any symptoms related to corneal abrasions.

(6) Retinal Detachment:

Retinal detachment can happen to anyone but is more prevalent among people over age 40, especially men and those with severe nearsightedness or people with a family history of retinal detachment. At Spectra Eye Hospital, we have a team of experienced ophthalmologists and eye surgeons who utilize advanced diagnostic equipment and techniques. It is our aim to provide the best patient care, ensuring that you not only receive high quality medical attention but also comprehensive pre-postoperative care. We offer a range of surgical treatments for retinal detachment such as vitrectomy, scleral buckle procedure and pneumatic retinopexy depending on your specific condition. Our specialists are dedicated in explaining each procedure and finding the most suitable one for individual patient. Visit our Spectra Eye Hospital or call us to plan your consultation today.

Don't risk your sight, when it comes to your vision, trust only the specialists.

(7) Diabetic Retinopathy:

Diabetic retinopathy is a severe complication of diabetes that can compromise vision. High blood sugar levels can damage the tiny blood vessels in the retina, resulting in bleeding, fluid buildup and the obstruction of adequate blood supply to the retina. Over time, this can lead to the deterioration of the light-sensitive tissues in the retina, negatively impacting vision quality and leading to vision loss if not adequately addressed.

The progression of diabetic retinopathy is usually slow, and early stages might not display any noticeable symptoms.

Symptoms that may develop as the condition progresses, typically affecting both eyes, include:

- Blurry vision

- Difficulty seeing at night

- Seeing an increasing amount of floaters

- Dark or empty areas in your field of vision

- Vision loss

Several tests can help diagnose diabetic retinopathy, including a visual acuity test, a dilated eye exam, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT provides detailed images of the retina to see if fluid has leaked into retinal tissue. Managing your diabetes is the primary strategy to prevent diabetic retinopathy. Regular monitoring of your blood sugar and blood pressure levels, along with frequent diabetic eye exams can catch the condition early, improving the outcomes.

(8) Subconjunctival Haemorrhage:

A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a relatively minor eye condition where a tiny blood vessel breaks on the surface of the eye, leading to the appearance of a red spot on the white part (sclera) of the eye. The conjunctiva, a clear membrane covering the inside of the eyelid and the white of the eye, contains delicate blood vessels that can easily rupture, causing blood to leak and pool under the conjunctiva. As a result, the white part of the eye turns bright red, resembling a small blood spot.
While the appearance of a subconjunctival hemorrhage may seem alarming, it is usually not a cause for concern. Most cases do not cause any symptoms such as pain, swelling, or changes in vision. Additionally, the blood is trapped within the conjunctiva and does not affect the cornea or the inner eye, ensuring that vision remains unaffected. While subconjunctival hemorrhages do not usually require treatment, artificial tears (eye drops) may be used to relieve any minor eye irritation. If someone experiences pain along with the red spot or recurrent subconjunctival hemorrhages, it is advisable to seek medical attention as there might be an underlying condition that requires evaluation. Most individuals with subconjunctival hemorrhages experience no vision problems and can expect the condition to resolve without complications. However, in cases where risk factors are present or if hemorrhages recur frequently, further evaluation and management may be necessary.

(9) Age-related Macular Degeneration:

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye condition that primarily affects individuals aged 50 years or older. It is a leading cause of vision loss in this age group. AMD specifically impacts the macula, which is the central part of the retina responsible for providing sharp, detailed vision. There are two main types of AMD: Dry AMD and Wet AMD.

Dry AMD is more common and occurs when the macula thins with age and tiny clumps of protein called drusen develop. This leads to a gradual loss of central vision. Currently, there is no treatment for dry AMD, but some individuals with certain risk factors or significant vision loss might benefit from taking specific nutritional supplements. Wet AMD, although less common, is more severe. It involves the growth of abnormal blood vessels under the retina, which may leak blood or fluids, leading to scarring of the macula and faster vision loss. Treatment for wet AMD includes anti-VEGF drugs, which reduce the number of abnormal blood vessels and slow any leaking. Laser surgery is also used in some cases to treat certain types of wet AMD. Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and management of AMD to preserve as much vision as possible.

(10) Corneal Ulcer:

A corneal ulcer, also known as keratitis, is a painful open sore or erosion on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped  outermost layer of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing light onto the retina for clear vision. Corneal ulcers can occur due to various causes, and they are considered a serious eye condition that requires prompt medical attention.
Treatment for this disorder includes antibiotics, antiviral medication, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damage.

(11) Scleritis:

Scleritis is a rare and serious eye disorder that affects the white part of the eye, known as the sclera. This condition involves inflammation of the sclera, leading to redness, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. Individuals with scleritis may also experience light sensitivity and persistent irritation. This eye disorder can be extremely painful and has the potential to cause permanent vision loss if not promptly and appropriately treated.
Treatment for scleritis typically involves a multi-faceted approach to address the inflammation and manage the symptoms effectively:

(i) Prescription Medications

(ii) Corticosteroid Injections

(iii) Surgery

In addition to medical interventions, it is essential for individuals with scleritis to adhere to their prescribed treatment plans diligently and attend regular follow-up appointments with their eye care provider. Early diagnosis and timely treatment play a critical role in preserving vision and preventing long-term complications. Individuals experiencing symptoms of scleritis, such as severe eye pain, redness, or light sensitivity, should seek immediate medical attention to ensure prompt evaluation and appropriate management of this serious eye disorder.

(12) Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO):

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a relatively common eye disorder that occurs when there is a blockage in the central retinal vein, which is responsible for carrying blood away from the retina. This blockage leads to impaired blood flow and accumulation of fluid, causing swelling in the retina. CRVO can result in vision loss and other visual disturbances.

Symptoms of CRVO include:

1. Blurred or Distorted Vision: The blockage in the retinal vein can lead to blurry or distorted vision, making it difficult to see objects clearly.

2. Dark Spots: Patients with CRVO may experience the appearance of dark spots or floaters in their field of vision.

3. Difficulty Seeing at Night: Night vision may be particularly affected, and individuals may struggle to see in dim lighting conditions.

Treatment options for CRVO aim to manage the condition and prevent further vision loss. It is crucial for individuals experiencing symptoms of CRVO, such as sudden vision changes or dark spots in their vision, to seek immediate medical attention. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can play a significant role in managing the condition and preventing permanent vision loss.

Regular follow-up visits with an ophthalmologist are essential for monitoring the progress of the disease and adjusting treatment as necessary to optimize visual outcomes.

(13) Dry Eye:

Dry eye is a common eye condition characterized by insufficient tear production or rapid tear evaporation, leading to inadequate moisture and lubrication on the eye's surface. Tears are crucial for maintaining eye health and clear vision. The tear film is composed of three layers - oily, watery, and mucus layers - each serving a specific purpose to keep the eyes smooth, clear, and moist. 
When the tear film is disrupted, individuals may experience symptoms such as stinging, burning, blurred vision, a gritty sensation, and redness. Various factors can contribute to dry eye, including aging, hormonal changes, certain medical conditions, environmental factors, prolonged digital device use, and certain medications.

For the treatment of dry eye, advanced technologies like LipiView and LipiFlow may be used, which are available at Spectra Eye Hospital.

i) Lipiview Eye Treatment - LipiView is a diagnostic device that assesses the tear film and measures the lipid layer, providing valuable information for personalized treatment plans. 

ii) Lipiflow Eye Treatment - LipiFlow is a therapeutic device that uses gentle heat and pressure to unclog and stimulate the meibomian glands, improving the quality of the oily layer in the tear film. By addressing the underlying cause of dry eye, these technologies can help alleviate symptoms and improve the overall health and comfort of the eyes. 

It's important to note that the availability of these technologies may vary from one eye care center to another. If you are interested in undergoing LipiView and LipiFlow treatments for dry eye, we recommend consulting with an eye care specialist in Spectra Eye Hospital.

Why visit Spectra Eye Hospital to fix common eye disorders?

Spectra Eye Hospital is equipped with the latest and most modern facilities to offer treatments for conditions such as myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, glaucoma, cataract, retinal disorders, and pediatric ophthalmology. Apart from regular eye check-ups, we have various specialized treatments available such as cataract surgery, corneal surgery, refractive surgery, retina services, pediatric services, glaucoma services and contact lens services.

Quality patient care and safety is our main priority and we ensure the highest standards of cleanliness and hygiene in all our facilities. We follow rigorous international standards for patient care, safety, privacy, and infection control. We also believe in maintaining a complete transparency in dealing with our patients and ensure that they are well-informed about their condition, expected outcomes, and potential risks involved in the treatments. We adopt a holistic approach towards patient care where we not only focus on treating the condition, but also on preventive care and lifestyle counseling to maintain healthy eyes. We make sure your appointments are scheduled conveniently and there is minimal waiting time during your visit. We also offer services for insurance coverage and easy financing options for our patients.

At Spectra Eye Hospital, every patient is important to us, and we work towards providing exceptional service and care. We invite you to visit us for a unique and caring experience in eye care. We assure you excellent, world-class eye care right here in your city. We look forward to serving you.



Q: What are some common eye problems and disorders?

A: There are a range of common eye problems and disorders such as cataracts, conjunctivitis, also known as "pink eye" optic nerve disorders, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and amblyopia famously known as "lazy eye";. According to the National Eye Institute, other conditions such as dry eyes, digital eye strain, and floaters are also very common.

Q: Can a common eye disorder turn into a disease?

A: Yes, a common eye disorder if not treated appropriately can lead to a more serious eye disease. For example, untreated conjunctivitis can sometimes cause vision loss. Therefore, it is important to see your eye care professional regularly for check-ups to ensure optimum eye health.

Q: What are floaters and are they a common eye problem?

A: Floaters are small specks or clouds that drift in your field of vision, particularly when looking at a white background or the sky. They are quite common and usually aren't a cause for concern. However, a sudden increase in floats could signal a serious eye condition such as a retinal tear and should prompt a visit to an eye specialist.

Q: What is the most common eye disorder that can lead to blindness?

A: The most common cause of vision impairment and blindness is age-related macular degeneration. According to the National Eye Institute, this disease affects the macula (the middle layer of the eye) causing damage to the sharp and central vision a person needs to see objects clearly.

Q: How can one protect themselves from common eye disorders?

A: Protecting your eyes from common eye disorders involves regular eye check-ups, maintaining a healthy lifestyle which includes a balanced diet and quitting smoking. It also helps to protect your eyes from harsh sunlight and wear protective eyewear during activities that risk eye injury.

Q: Can conjunctivitis be considered a common eye problem?

A: Yes, conjunctivitis commonly known as pink eye, is a common eye problem. It's either caused by a viral or bacterial eye infection or a blocked tear duct. Those infected may experience symptoms such as redness, itchiness, and a feeling of a foreign object in the eye.

Q: Where can I find more information on common eye disorders?

A: You can find more information on common eye disorders from reliable medical sources, such as medical centers, healthcare websites or from Spectra Eye Hospital's website. You may also converse with an eye care professional or an eye specialist.





Book an Appointment

Fill in the details below to enable us contact you instantly


 Talk to Expert